The department of Rio Negro is located towards the west of Uruguay, bordering with Tacuarembó to the east, Soriano to the south, Paysandú to the north, Durazno to the southeast, and with Argentina to the west through the Uruguay River.
Rio Negro has an area of 9.282 km2 and a population of approximately 53.990 inhabitants, with a population density of about 5,8 inhabitants per km2. The capital city of this department is Fray Bentos, with a population of about 23.125 inhabitants.
According to the census of 2004, the average age of the inhabitants of Rio Negro is of 29,3 years old, and there is 17,9 births every 1000 inhabitants. Also, there are approximately 15.790 households with an average of about 3,3 people per house.
The department of Rio Negro limits with Durazno and Soriano towards the southern area through the Rio Negro River. Besides this, this department has some creeks, the main of which are: Grande, Tres Arboles, and Don Esteban. The main cities of this department, after the capital, are: Young, Nuevo Berlin, and San Javier